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联合国宪章(附英文版)
2011-03-31

联合国宪章

(1945年6月26日订于旧金山市)

我联合国人民,

同兹决心,欲免后世再遭今代人类两度身历惨不堪言之战祸,重申基本人权,人格尊严与价值,以及男女与大小各国平等权利之信念,创造适当环境,俾克维持正义,尊重由条约与国际法其他渊源而起之义务,久而弗懈,促成大自由中之社会进步及较善之民生,并为达此目的,力行容恕,彼此以善邻之道,和睦相处,集中力量,以维持国际和平及安全,接受原则,确立方法,以保证非为公共利益,不得使用武力, 运用国际机构,以促成全球人民经济及社会之进展,用是发愤立志,务当同心协力,以竟厥功。

爰由我各本国政府,经齐集金山市之代表各将所奉全权证书,互相校阅,均属妥善,议定本联合国宪章,并设立国际组织,定名联合国。

第一章 宗旨及原则

第一条

联合国之宗旨为:

一、维持国际和平及安全;并为此目的:采取有效集体办法、以防止且消除对于和平之威胁,制止侵略行为或其他和平之破坏;并以和平方法且依正义及国际法之原则,调整或解决足以破坏和平之国际争端或情势。

二、发展国际间以尊重人民平等权利及自决原则为根据之友好关系,并采取其他适当办法,以增强普遍和平。

三、促成国际合作,以解决国际间属于经济、社会、文化及人类福利性质之国际问题,且不分种族、性别、语言或宗教、增进并激励对于全体人类之人权及基本自由之尊重。

四、构成一协调各国行动之中心,以达成上述共同目的。

第二条

为求实现第一条所述各宗旨起见,本组织及其会员国应遵行下列原则 :

一、本组织系基于各会员国主权平等之原则。

二、各会员国应一秉善意,履行其依本宪章所担负之义务,以保证全体会员国由加入本组织而发生之权益。

三、各会员国应以和平方法解决其国际争端,卑免危及国际和平、安全、及正义。

四、各会员国在其国际关系上不得使用威胁或武力,或以与联合国宗旨不符之任何其他方法,侵害任何会员国或国家之领土完整或政治独立。

五、各会员国对于联合国依本宪章规定而采取之行动,应尽力予以协助,联合国对于任何国家正在采取防止或执行行动时,各会员国对该国不得给予协助。

六、本组织在维持国际和平及安全之必要范围内,应保证非联合国会员国遵行上述原则。

七、本宪章不得认为授权联合国干涉在本质上属于任何国家国内管辖之事件,且并不要求会员国将该项事件依本宪章提请解决;但此项原则不妨碍第七章内执行办法之适用。

第二章 会 员

第三条

凡曾经参加金山联合国国际组织会议或前此曾签字于一九四二年一月一日联合国宣言之国家,签订本宪章,且依宪章第一百一十条规定而予以批准者,均为联合国之创始会员国。

第四条

一、凡其他爱好和平之国家,接受本宪章所载之义务,经本组织认为确能并愿意履行该项义务者,得为联合国会员国。

二、准许上述国家为联合国会员国,将由大会经安全理事会之推荐以决议行之。

第五条

联合国会员国,业经安全理事会对其采取防止或执行行动者,大会经安全理事会之建议,得停止其会员权利及特权之行使。此项权利及特权之行使,得由安全理事会恢复之。

第六条

联合国之会员国中,有屡次违犯本宪章所载之原则者,大会经安全理事会之建议,得将其由本组织除名。

第三章 机 关

第七条

一、兹设联合国之主要机关如下:大会、安全理事会、经济及社会理事会、托管理事会、国际法院、及秘书处。

二、联合国得依本宪章设立认为必需之辅助机关。

第八条

联合国对于男女均得在其主要及辅助机关在平等条件之下,充任任何职务,不得加以限制。

第四章 大 会

组 织

第九条

一、大会由联合国所有会员国组织之。

二、每一会员国在大会之代表,不得超过五人。

职 权

第十条

大会得讨论本宪章范围内之任何问题或事项,或关于本宪章所规定任何机关之职权;并除第十二条所规定外,得向联合国会员国或安全理事会或兼向两者,提出对各该问题或事项之建议。

第十一条

一、大会得考虑关于维持国际和平及安全之合作之普通原则,包括军缩及军备管制之原则;并得向会员国或安全理事会或兼向两者提出对于该项原则之建议。

二、大会得讨论联合国任何会员国或安全理事会或非联合国会员国依第三十五条第二项之规定向大会所提关于维持国际和平及安全之任何问题;除第十二条所规定外,并得向会员国或安全理事会或兼向两者提出对于各该项问题之建议。凡对于需要行动之各该项问题,应由大会于讨论前或讨论后提交安全理事会。

三、大会对于足以危及国际和平与安全之情势,得提请安全理事会注意。

四、本条所载之大会权力并不限制第十条之概括范围。

第十二条

一、当安全理事会对于任何争端或情势,正在执行本宪章所授予该会之职务时,大会非经安全理事会请求,对于该项争端或情势,不得提出任何建议。

二、秘书长经安全理事会之同意,应于大会每次会议时,将安全理事会正在处理中关于维持国际和平及安全之任何事件,通知大会;于安全理事会停止处理该项事件时,亦应立即通知大会,或在大会闭会期内通知联合国会员国。

第十三条

一、大会应发动研究,并作成建议:

(子)以促进政治上之国际合作,并提倡国际法之逐渐发展与编篡。

(丑) 以促进经济、社会、文化、教育、及卫生各部门之国际合作,且不分种族、性别、语言、或宗教,助成全体人类之人权及基本自由之实现。

二、大会关于本条第一项(丑)款所列事项之其他责任及职权,于第九章及第十章中规定之。

第十四条

大会对于其所认为足以妨害国际间公共福利或友好关系之任何情势,不论其起源如何,包括由违反本宪章所载联合国之宗旨及原则而起之情势,得建议和平调整办法,但以不违背第十二条之规定为限。

第十五条

一、大会应收受并审查安全理事会所送之常年及特别报告;该项报告应载有安全理事会对于维持国际和平及安全已决定或施行之办法之陈述。二、大会应收受并审查联合国其他机关所送之报告。

第十六条

大会应执行第十二章及第十三章所授予关于国际托管制度之职务,包括关于非战略防区托管协定之核准。

第十七条

一、大会应审核本组织之预算。

二、本组织之经费应由各会员国依照大会分配限额担负之。

三、大会应审核经与第五十七条所指各种专门机关订定之任何财政及预算办法,并应审查该项专门机关之行政预算,以便向关系机关提出建议。

第十八条

一、大会之每一会员国,应有一个投票权。

二、大会对于重要问题之决议应以到会及投票之会员国三分二之多数决定之。此项问题应包括:关于维持国际和平及安全之建议,安全理事会非常任理事国之选举,经济及社会理事会理事国之选举,依第八十六条第一项(寅)款所规定托管理事会理事国之选举,对于新会员国加入联合国之准许,会员国权利及特权之停止,会员国之除名,关于施行托管制度之问题,以及预算问题。

三、关于其他问题之决议,包括另有何种事项应以三分二之多数决定之问题,应以到会及投票之会员国过半数决定之。

第十九条

凡拖欠本组织财政款项之会员国,其拖欠数目如等于或超过前两年所应缴纳之数目时,即丧失其在大会投票权。大会如认拖欠原因,确由于该会员国无法控制之情形者,得准许该会员国投票。

程 序

第二十条

大会每年应举行常会,并于必要时,举行特别会议。特别会议应由秘书长经安全理事会或联合国会员国过半数之请求召集之。

第二十一条

大会应自行制定其议事规则。大会应选举每次会议之主席。

第二十二条

大会得设立其认为于行使职务所必需之辅助机关。

第五章 安全理事会

组 织

第二十三条

一、安全理事会以联合国十五会员国组织之。中华民国、法兰西、苏维埃社会主义共和国联邦、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国及美利坚合众国应为安全理事会常任理事国。大会应选举联合国其他十会员国为安全理事会非常任理事国,选举时首宜充分斟酌联合国各会员国于维持国际和平与安全及本组织其余各宗旨上之贡献,并宜充分斟酌地域上之公匀分配。

二、安全理事会非常任理事国任期定为二年。安全理事会理事国自十一国增至十五国后第一次选举非常任理事国时,所增四国中两国之任期应为一年。任满之理事国不得即行连选。

三、安全理事会每一理事国应有代表一人。

职 权

第二十四条

一、为保证联合国行动迅速有效起见,各会员国将维持国际和平及安全之主要责任,授予安全理事会,并同意安全理事会于履行此项责任下之职务时,即系代表各会员国。

二、安全理事会于履行此项职务时,应遵照联合国之宗旨及原则。为履行此项职务而授予安全理事会之特定权力,于本宪章第六章、第七章、第八章、及第十二章内规定之。

三、安全理事会应将常年报告、并于必要时将特别报告,提送大会审查。

第二十五条

联合国会员国同意依宪章之规定接受并履行安全理事会之决议。

第二十六条

为促进国际和平及安全之建立及维持,以尽量减少世界人力及经济资源之消耗于军备起见,安全理事会借第四十七条所指之军事参谋团之协助,应负责拟具方案,提交联合国会员国,以建立军备管制制度。

投 票

第二十七条

一、安全理事会每一理事国应有一个投票权。

二、安全理事会关于程序事项之决议,应以九理事国之可决票表决之。

三、安全理事会对于其他一切事项之决议,应以九理事国之可决票包括全体常任理事国之同意票表决之;但对于第六章及第五十二条第三项内各事项之决议,争端当事国不得投票。

第二十八条

一、安全理事会之组织,应以使其能继续不断行使职务为要件。为此目的,安全理事会之各理事国应有常驻本组织会所之代表。

二、安全理事会应举行定期会议,每一理事国认为合宜时得派政府大员或其他特别指定之代表出席。

三、在本组织会所以外,安全理事会得在认为最能便利其工作之其他地点举行会议。

第二十九条

安全理事会得设立其认为于行使职务所必需之辅助机关。

第三十条

安全理事会应自行制定其议事规则,包括其推选主席之方法。

第三十一条

在安全理事会提出之任何问题,经其认为对于非安全理事会理事国之联合国任何会员国之利益有特别关系时,该会员国得参加讨论,但无投票权。

第三十二条

联合国会员国而非为安全理事会之理事国,或非联合国会员国之国家,如于安全理事会考虑中之争端为当事国者,应被邀参加关于该项争端之讨论,但无投票权。安全理事会应规定其所认为公平之条件,以便非联合国会员国之国家参加。

第六章 争端之和平解决

第三十三条

一、任何争端之当事国,于争端之继续存在足以危及国际和平与安全之维持时,应尽先以谈判、调查、调停、和解、公断、司法解决、区域机关或区域办法之利用、或各该国自行选择之其他和平方法,求得解决。

二、安全理事会认为必要时,应促请各当事国以此项方法,解决其争端。

第三十四条

安全理事会得调查任何争端或可能引起国际磨擦或惹起争端之任何情势,以断定该项争端或情势之继续存在是否足以危及国际和平与安全之维持。

第三十五条

一、联合国任何会员国得将属于第三十四条所指之性质之任何争端或情势,提请安全理事会或大会注意。

二、非联合国会员国之国家如为任何争端之当事国时,经预先声明就该争端而言接受本宪章所规定和平解决之义务后,得将该项争端,提请大会或安全理事会注意。三、大会关于按照本条所提请注意事项之进行步骤,应遵守第十一条及第十二条之规定。

第三十六条

一、属于第三十三条所指之性质之争端或相似之情势,安全理事会在任何阶段,得建议适当程序或调整方法。

二、安全理事会对于当事国为解决争端业经采取之任何程序,理应予以考虑。

三、安全理事会按照本条作成建议时,同时理应注意凡具有法律性质之争端,在原则上,理应由当事国依国际法院规约之规定提交国际法院。

第三十七条

一、属于第三十三条所指之性质之争端,当事国如未能依该条所示方法解决时,应将该项争端提交安全理事会。

二、安全理事会如认为该项争端之继续存在,在事实上足以危及国际和平与安全之维持时,应决定是否当依第三十六条采取行动或建议其所认为适当之解决条件。

第三十八条

安全理事会如经所有争端当事国之请求,得向各当事国作成建议,以求争端之和平解决,但以不妨碍第三十三条至第三十七条之规定为限。

第七章 对于和平之威胁和平之破坏及侵略行为之应付办法

第三十九条

安全理事会应断定任何和平之威胁、和平之破坏、或侵略  行为之是否存在,并应作成建议或抉择依第四十一条及第四十二条规定之办法,以维持或恢复国际和平及安全。

第四十条

为防止情势之恶化,安全理事会在依第三十九条规定作成建议或决定办法以前,得促请关系当事国遵行安全理事会所认为必要或合宜之临时办法。此项临时办法并不妨碍关系当事国之权利、要求、或立场。安全理事会对于不遵行此项临时办法之情形,应予适当注意。

第四十一条

安全理事会得决定所应采武力以外之办法,以实施其决议,并得促请联合国会员国执行此项办法。此项办法得包括经济关系、铁路、海运、航空、邮、电、元线电、及其他交通工具、之局部或全部停止,以及外交关系之断绝。

第四十二条

安全理事会如认第四十一条所规定之办法为不足或已经证 明为不足时,得采取必要之空海陆军行动,以维持或恢复国际和平及安全。此项行动得包括联合国会员国之空海陆军示威、封锁、及其他军事举动。

第四十三条

一、联合国各会员国为求对于维持国际和平及安全有所贡献起见,担任于安全理事会发令时,并依特别协定,供给为维持国际和平及安全所必需之军队、协助、及便利,包括过境权。

二、此项特别协定应规定军队之数目及种类,其准备程度及一般驻扎地点,以及所供便利及协助之性质。

三、此项特别协定应以安全理事会之主动, 尽速议订。此项协定应由安全理事会与会员国或由安全理事会与若干会员国之集团缔结之,并由签字国各依其宪法程序批准之。

第四十四条

安全理事会决定使用武力时,于要求非安全理事会会员国依第四十三条供给军队以履行其义务之前,如经该会员国请求,应请其遣派代表,参加安全理事会关于使用其军事部队之决议。

第四十五条

为使联合国能采取紧急军事办法起见,会员国应将其本国空军部队为国际共同执行行动随时供给调遣。此项部队之实力与准备之程度,及其共同行动之计划,应由安全理事会以军事参谋团之协助,在第四十三条所指之特别协定范围内决定之。

第四十六条

武力使用之计划应由安全理事会以军事参谋团之协助决定之。

第四十七条

一、兹设立军事参谋团,以便对于安全理事会维持国际和平及安全之军事需要问题,对于受该会所支配军队之使用及统率问题,对于军备之管制及可能之军缩问题,向该会贡献意见并予以协助。

二、军事参谋团应由安全理事会各常任理事国之参谋总长或其代表组织之。联合国任何会员国在该团未有常任代表者,如于该团责任之履行在效率上必需该国参加其工作时,应由该团邀请参加。

三、军事参谋团在安全理事会权力之下,对于受该会所支配之任何军队,负战略上之指挥责任;关于该项军队之统率问题,应待以后处理。

四、军事参谋团, 经安全理事会之授权,并与区域内有关机关商议后,得设立区域分团。

第四十八条

一、执行安全理事会为维持国际和平及安全之决议所必要之行动,应由联合国全体会员国或由若干会员国担任之,一依安全理事会之决定。

二、此项决议应由联合国会员国以其直接行动、及经其加入为会员之有关国际机关之行动履行之。

第四十九条

联合国会员国应通力合作,彼此协助,以执行安全理事会所决定之办法。

第五十条

安全理事会对于任何国家采取防止或执行办法时,其他国家,不论其是否为联合国会员国,遇有因此项办法之执行而引起之特殊经济问题者,应有权与安全理事会会商解决此项问题。

第五十一条

联合国任何会员国受武力攻击时,在安全理事会采取必要办法,以维持国际和平及安全以前,本宪章不得认为禁止行使单独或集体自卫之自然权利。会员国因行使此项自卫权而采取之办法,应立向安全理事会报告,此项办法于任何方面不得影响该会按照本宪章随时采取其所认为必要行动之权责,以维持或恢复国际和平及安全。

第八章 区域办法

第五十二条

一、本宪章不得认为排除区域办法或区域机关、用以应付关于维持国际和平及安全而宜于区域行动之事件者;但以此项办法或机关及其工作与联合国之宗旨及原则符合者为限。

二、缔结此项办法或设立此项机关之联合国会员国,将地方争端提交安全理事会以前,应依该项区域办法,或由该项区域机关,力求和平解决。

三、安全理事会对于依区域办法或由区域机关而求地方争端之和平解决,不论其系由关系国主动,或由安全理事会提交者,应鼓励其发展。

四、本条绝不妨碍第三十四条及第三十五条之适用。

第五十三条

一、安全理事会对于职权内之执行行动,在适当情形下,应利用此项区域办法或区域机关。如无安全理事会之授权,不得依区域办法或由区域机关采取任何执行行动;但关于依第一百零七条之规定对付本条第二项所指之任何敌国之步骤,或在区域办法内所取防备此等国家再施其侵略政策之步骤,截至本组织经各关系政府之请求,对于此等国家之再次侵略,能担负防止责任时为止,不在此限。

二、本条第一项所称敌国系指第二次世界大战中为本宪章任何签字国之敌国而言。

第五十四条

关于为维持国际和平及安全起见,依区域办法或由区域机关所已采取或正在考虑之行动,不论何时应向安全理事会充分报告之。

第九章 国际经济及社会合作

第五十五条

为造成国际间以尊重人民平等权利及自决原则为根据之和平友好关系所必要之安定及福利条件起见,联合国应促进:

(子) 较高之生活程度,全民就业,及经济与社会进展。

(丑) 国际间经济、社会、卫生、及有关问题之解决;国际间文化及教育合作。

(寅)全体人类之人权及基本自由之普遍尊重与遵守,不分种族、性别、语言、或宗教。

第五十六条

各会员国担允采取共同及个别行动与本组织合作,以达成第五十五条所载之宗旨。

第五十七条

一、由各国政府间协定所成立之各种专门机关,依其组织约章之规定,于经济、社会、文化、教育、卫生、及其他有关部门负有广大国际责任者,应依第六十三条之规定使与联合国发生关系。

二、上述与联合国发生关系之各专门机关,以下简称专门机关。

第五十八条

本组织应作成建议,以调整各专门机关之政策及工作。

第五十九条

本组织应于适当情形下,发动各关系国间之谈判,以创设为达成第五十五条规定宗旨所必要之新专门机关。

第六十条

履行本章所载本组织职务之责任,属于大会及大会权力下之经济及社会理事会。为此目的,该理事会应有第十章所载之权力。

第十章 经济及社会理事会

组 织

第六十一条

一、经济及社会理事会由大会选举联合国五十四会员国组织之。

二、除第三项所规定外,经济及社会理事会每年选举理事十八国,任期三年。任满之理事国得即行连选。

三、经济及社会理事会理事国自二十七国增到五十四国后第一次选举时,除选举理事九国接替任期在该年年终届满之理事国外,应另增选理事二十七国。增选之理事二十七国中,九国任期一年,另九国任期二年,一依大会所定办法。

四、经济及社会理事会之每一理事国应有代表一人。

职 权

第六十二条

一、经济及社会理事会得作成或发动关于国际经济、社会、文化、教育、卫生、及其他有关事项之研究及报告;并得向大会、联合国会员国、及关系专门机关,提出关于此种事项之建议案。

二、本理事会为增进全体人类之人权及基本自由之尊重及维护起见,得作成建议案。

三、本理事会得拟具关于其职权范围内事项之协约草案,提交大会。

四、本理事会得依联合国所定之规则召集本理事会职务范围以内事项之国际会议。

第六十三条

一、经济及社会理事会得与第五十七条所指之任何专门机关订立协定,订明关系专门机关与联合国发生关系之条件。该项协定须经大会之核准。

二、本理事会,为调整各种专门机关之工作得与此种机关会商并得向其提出建议,并得向大会及联合国会员国建议。

第六十四条

一、经济及社会理事会得取适当步骤,以取得专门机关之经常报告。本理事会得与联合国会员国及专门机关,商定办法俾就实施本理事会之建议及大会对于本理事会职权范围内事项 之建议所采之步骤,取得报告。

二、本理事会得将对于此项报告之意见提送大会。

第六十五条

经济及社会理事会得向安全理事会供给情报,并因安全理事会之邀请,予以协助。

第六十六条

一、经济及社会理事会应履行其职权范围内关于执行大会建议之职务。

二、经大会之许可,本理事会得应联合国会员国或专门机关之请求,供其服务。

三、本理事会应履行本宪章他章所特定之其他职务,以及大会所授予之职务。

投 票

第六十七条

一、经济及社会理事会每一理事国应有一个投票权。

二、本理事会之决议,应以到会及投票之理事国过半数表决之。

程 序

第六十八条

经济及社会理事会应设立经济与社会部门及以提倡人权为目的之各种委员会,并得设立于行使职务所必需之其他委员会。

第六十九条

经济及社会理事会应请联合国会员国参加讨论本理事会对于该国有特别关系之任何事件,但无投票权。

第七十条

经济及社会理事会得商定办法使专门机关之代表无投票权而参加本理事会及本理事会所设各委员会之讨论,或使本理事会之代表参加此项专门机关之讨论。

第七十一条

经济及社会理事会得采取适当办法,俾与各种非政府组织会商有关于本理事会职权范围内之事件。此项办法得与国际组织商定之,并于适当情形下,经与关系联合国会员国会商后,得与该国国内组织商定之。

第七十二条

一、经济及社会理事会应自行制定其议事规则,包括其推选主席之方法。

二、经济及社会理事会应依其规则举行必要之会议。此项规则应包括因理事国过半数之请求而召集会议之条款。

第十一章 关于非自治领土之宣言

第七十三条

联合国各会员国,于其所负有或担承管理责任之领土,其人民尚未臻自治之充分程度者,承认以领土居民之福利为至上之原则,并接受在本宪章所建立之国际和平及安全制度下,以充量增进领土居民福利之义务为神圣之信托,且为此目的:

(子)于充分尊重关系人民之文化下,保证其政治、经济、社会、及教育之进展,予以公平待遇,且保障其不受虐待。

(丑)按各领土及其人民特殊之环境、及其进化之阶段,发展自治;对各该人民之政治愿望,予以适当之注意;并助其自由政治制度之逐渐发展。

(寅)促进国际和平及安全。

(卯)提倡建设计划,以求进步;奖励研究;各国彼此合作,并于适当之时间及场合与专门国际团体合作,以求本条所载社会、经济、及科学目的之实现。

(辰)在不违背安全及宪法之限制下,按时将关于各会员国分别负责管理领土内之经济、社会、及教育情形之统计及具有专门性质之情报,递送秘书长,以供参考。本宪章第十二章及第十三章所规定之领土,不在此限。

第七十四条

联合国各会员国公同承诺对于本章规定之领土,一如对于本国区域,其政策必须以善邻之道奉为圭泉;并于社会、经济、及商业上,对世界各国之利益及幸福,予以充分之注意。

第十二章 国际托管制度

第七十五条

联合国在其权力下,应设立国际托管制度,以管理并监督凭此后个别协定而置于该制度下之领土。此项领土以下简称托管领土。

第七十六条

按据本宪章第一条所载联合国之宗旨,托管制度之基本目的应为:

(子)促进国际和平及安全。

(丑)增进托管领土居民之政治、经济、社会、及教育之进展;并以适合各领土及其人民之特殊情形及关系人民自由表示之愿望为原则,且按照各托管协定之条款,增进其趋向自治或独立之逐渐发展。

(寅)不分种族、性别、语言、或宗教,提倡全体人类之人权及基本自由之尊重,并激发世界人民互相维系之意识。

(卯)于社会、经济、及商业事件上,保证联合国全体会员国及其国民之平等待遇,及各该国民于司法裁判上之平等待遇,但以不妨碍上述目的之达成,且不违背第八十条之规定为限。

第七十七条

一、托管制度适用于依托管协定所置于该制度下之下列各种类之领土:

(子)现在委任统治下之领土。

(丑)因第二次世界大战结果或将自敌国割离之领土。

(寅)负管理责任之国家自愿置于该制度下之领土。

二、关于上列种类中之何种领土将置于托管制度之下,及其条件,为此后协定所当规定之事项。

第七十八条

凡领土已成为联合国之会员国者,不适用托管制度;联合国会员国间之关系,应基于尊重主权平等之原则。

第七十九条

置于托管制度下之每一领土之托管条款,及其更改或修正,应由直接关系各国、包括联合国之会员国而为委任统治地之受托国者,予以议定,其核准应依第八十三条及第八十五条之规定。

第八十条

一、除依第七十七条、第七十九条、及第八十一条所订置各领土于托管制度下之个别托管协定另有议定外,并在该项协定未经缔结以前,本章任何规定绝对不得解释为以任何方式变更任何国家或人民之权利、或联合国会员国个别签订之现有国际约章之条款。

二、本条第一项不得解释为对于依第七十七条之规定而订置委任统治地或其他领土于托管制度下之协定,授以延展商订之理由。

第八十一条

凡托管协定均应载有管理领土之条款,并指定管理托管领土之当局。该项当局,以下简称管理当局,得为一个或数个国家,或为联合国本身。

第八十二条

于任何托管协定内,得指定一个或数个战略防区,包括该项协定下之托管领士之一部或全部,但该项协定并不妨碍依第四十三条而订立之任何特别协定。

第八十三条

一、联合国关于战略防区之各项职务,包括此项托管协定条款之核准、及其更改或修正,应由安全理事会行使之。

二、第七十六条所规定之基本目的,适用于每一战略防区之人民。

三、安全理事会以不违背托管协定之规定且不妨碍安全之考虑为限,应利用托管理事会之协助,以履行联合国托管制度刷下关于战略防区内之政治、经济、社会、及教育事件之职务。

第八十四条

管理当局有保证托管领土对于维持国际和平及安全尽其本分之义务。该当局为此目的得利用托管领土之志愿军、便利、及协助,以履行该当局对于安全理事会所负关于此点之义务,并以实行地方自卫,且在托管领土内维持法律与秩序。

第八十五条

一、联合国关于一切非战略防区托管协定之职务,包括此项托管协定条款之核准及其更改或修正,应由大会行使之。

二、托管理事会于大会权力下,应协助大会履行上述之职务。

第十三章 托管理事会

组 织

第八十六条

一、托管理事会应由下列联合国会员国组织之:

(子)管理托管领士之会员国。

(丑)第二十三条所列名之国家而现非管理托管领土者。

(寅)大会选举必要数额之其他会员国,任期三年,俾使托管理事国之总数,于联合国会员国中之管理托管领土者及不管理者之间,得以平均分配。

二、托管理事会之每一理事国应指定一特别合格之人员,以代表之。

职 权

第八十七条

大会及在其权力下之托管理事会于履行职务时得:

(子)审查管理当局所送之报告。

(丑)会同管理当局接受并审查请愿书。

(寅)与管理当局商定时间,按期视察各托管领土。

(犯)依托管协定之条款,采取上述其他行动。

第八十八条

托管理事会应拟定关于各托管领土居民之政治、经济、社会、及教育进展之问题单;就大会职权范围内,各托管领土之管理当局应根据该项问题单向大会提出常年报告。

投 票

第八十九条

一、托管理事会之每一理事国应有一个投票权。

二、托管理事会之决议应以到会及投票之理事国过半数表决之。

程 序

第九十条

一、托管理事会应自行制定其议事规则,包括其推选主席之方法。

二、托管理事会应依其所定规则,举行必要之会议。此项规则应包括关于经该会理事国过半数之请求而召集会议之规定。

第九十一条

托管理事会于适当时,应利用经济及社会理事会之协助,并对于各关系事项,利用专门机关之协助。

第十四章 国际法院

第九十二条

国际法院为联合国之主要司法机关,应依所附规约执行其职务。该项规约系以国际常设法院之规约为根据,并为本宪章之构成部分。

第九十三条

一、联合国各会员国为国际法院规约之当然当事国。

二、非联合国会员国之国家得为国际法院规约当事国之条件,应由大会经安全理事会之建议就各别情形决定之。

第九十四条

一、联合国每一会员国为任何案件之当事国者,承诺遵行国际法院之判决。

二、遇有一造不履行依法院判决应负之义务时,他造得向于安全理事会申诉。安全理事会如认为必要时,得作成建议或决定应采办法,以执行判决。

第九十五条

本宪章不得认为禁止联合国会员国依据现有或以后缔结之协定,将其争端托付其他法院解决。

第九十六条

一、大会或安全理事会对于任何法律问题得请国际法院发表咨询意见。

二、联合国其他机关、及各种专门机关,对于其工作范围内之任何法律问题,得随时以大会之授权,请求国际法院发表咨询意见。

第十五章 秘书处

第九十七条

秘书处置秘书长一人及本组织所需之办事人员若干人。秘书长应由大会经安全理事会之推荐委派之。秘书长为本组织之行政首长。

第九十八条

秘书长在大会、安全理事会、经济及社会理事会、及托管理事会之一切会议,应以秘书长资格行使职务,并应执行各该机关所托付之其他职务。秘书长应向大会提送关于本组织工作之常年报告。

第九十九条

秘书长得将其所认为可能威胁国际和平及安全之任何事件,提请安全理事会注意。

第一百条

一、秘书长及办事人员于执行职务时,不得请求或接受本组织以外任何政府或其他当局之训示,并应避免足以妨碍其国际官员地位之行动。秘书长及办事人员专对本组织负责。

二、联合国各会员国承诺尊重秘书长及办事人员责任之专属国际性,决不设法影响其责任之履行。

第一百零一条

一、办事人员由秘书长依大会所定章程委派之。

二、适当之办事人员应长期分配于经济及社会理事会、托管理事会、并于必要时,分配于联合国其他之机关。此项办事人员构成秘书处之一部。

三、办事人员之雇用及其服务条件之决定,应以求达效率、才干、及忠诚、之最高标准为首要考虑。征聘办事人员时,于可能范围内,应充分注意地域上之普及。

第十六章 杂项条款

第一百零二条

一、本宪章发生效力后,联合国任何会员国所缔结之一切条约及国际协定应尽速在秘书处登记,并由秘书处公布之。

二、当事国对于未经依本条第一项规定登记之条约或国际协定,不得向联合国任何机关援引之。

第一百零三条

联合国会员国在本宪章下之义务与其依任何其他国际协定所负之义务有冲突时,其在本宪章下之义务应居优先。

第一百零四条

本组织于每一会员国之领土内,应享受于执行其职务及达成其宗旨所必需之法律行为能力。

第一百零五条

一、本组织于每一会员国之领土内,应享受于达成其宗旨所必需之特权及豁免。

二、联合国会员国之代表及本组织之职员,亦应同样享受于其独立行使关于本组织之职务所必需之特权及豁免。

三、为明定本条第一项及第二项之施行细则起见,大会得作成建议,或为此目的向联合国会员国提议协约。

第十七章 过渡安全办法

第一百零六条

在第四十三条所称之特别协定尚未生效,因而安全理事会尚不得开始履行第四十二条所规定之责任前,一九四三年月三十日在莫斯科签订四国宣言之当事国及法兰西应依该宣言第五项之规定,互相洽商,并于必要时,与联合国其他会员国洽商,以代表本组织采取为维持国际和平及安全宗旨所必要之联合行动。

第一百零七条

本宪章并不取消或禁止负行动责任之政府对于在第二次世界大战中本宪章任何签字国之敌国因该次战争而采取或受权执行之行动。

第十八章 修正

第一百零八条

本宪章之修正案经大会会员国三分二之表决并由联合国会员国之三分二、包括安全理事会全体常任理事国,各依其宪法程序批准后,对于联合国所有会员国发生效力。

 

第一百零九条

一、联合国会员国,为检讨本宪章,得以大会会员国三分二之表决,经安全理事会任何九理事国之表决,确定日期及地点举行全体会议。联合国每一会员国在全体会议中应有一个投票权。

二、全体会议以三分二表决所建议对于宪章之任何更改,应经联合国会员国三分二、包括安全理事会全体常任理事国、各依其宪法程序批准后,发生效力。

三、如于本宪章生效后大会第十届年会前,此项全体会议尚未举行时,应将召集全体会议之提议列入大会该届年会之议事日程;如得大会会员国过半数及安全理事会任何七理事国之表决,此项会议应即举行。

第十九章 批准及签字

第一百一十条

一、本宪章应由签字国各依其宪法程序批准之。

二、批准书应交存美利坚合众国政府。该国政府应于每一批准书交存时通知各签字国,如本组织秘书长业经委派时,并应通知秘书长。

三、一俟美利坚合众国政府通知已有中华民国、法兰西、苏维埃社会主义共和国联邦、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国、与美利坚合众国、以及其他签字国之过半数将批准书交存时,本宪章即发生效力。美利坚合众国政府应拟就此项交存批准之议定书并将副本分送所有签字国。

四、本宪章签字国于宪章发生效力后批准者,应自其各将批准书交存之日起为联合国之创始会员国。

第一百一十一条

本宪章应留存美利坚合众国政府之档库,其中、法、俄、英、及西文各本同一作准。该国政府应将正式副本分送其他签字国政府。

为此联合国各会员国政府之代表谨签字于本宪章,以昭信守。

公历一千九百四十五年六月二十六日签订于金山市。

“爱心献血屋”关于“金山市”的编注:19世纪的圣·弗朗西斯科是美国淘金的中心地区,世界各地热衷于淘金的人们都到此地。辛勤的华人劳工到此之后,便将此地称之为“金山”。1951年,在澳大利亚墨尔本西北方的的吉朗镇,发现了“神话般的金矿”,这便成了真正的“金山”。为了与此做区别,便将圣·弗朗西斯科称为“旧金山”,而墨尔本则是名符其实的“金山”。)

1945年联合国宪章(英文)

Charter of the United Nations

 June 26, 1945

WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

CHAPTER I

PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES

Article 1

The Purposes of the United Nations are:

1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;

3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

Article 2

The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.

1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.

2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.

3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and. justice, are not endangered.

4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.

5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.

6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII.

CHAPTER II

MEMBERSHIP

Article 3

The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.

Article 4

1. Membership in the United Nations is open to a other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.

2. The admission of any such state to membership in the Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Article 5

A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

Article 6

A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be' expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

CHAPTER III

ORGANS

Article 7

1. There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat.

2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 8

The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and subsidiary organs.

CHAPTER IV

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Composition

Article 9

1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.

2. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.

Functions and Powers

Article 10

The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.

Article 11

1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.

2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.

3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.

4. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.

Article 12

1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.

2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such matters.

Article 13

1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of:

a. promoting international co-operation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification;

b. promoting international co-operation in the economic, social, cultural, educational, and health fields, an assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the General with respect to matters mentioned in paragraph ) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X.

Article 14

Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

Article 15

1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to main- tain international peace and security.

2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

Article 16

The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

Article 17

1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization.

2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly.

3. The Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialize agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

Voting

Article 18

1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two- thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.

3. Decisions on other questions, including the determination of additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Article 19

A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the of the Member.

Procedure

Article 20

The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the Members of the United Nations.

Article 21

The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session.

Article 22

The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

CHAPTER V

THE SECURITY COUNCIL

Composition

Article 23

1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first in- stance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution.

2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non- permanent members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.

Functions and Powers

Article 24

1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.

2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII.

3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.

Article 25

The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 26

In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United-Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.

Voting

Article 27

1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.

3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

Procedure

Article 28

1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at times at the seat of the Organization.

2. The Security Council shall hold meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some other specially designated representative.

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.

Article 29

The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

Article 30

The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

Article 31

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected.

Article 32

Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall any down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations.

CHAPTER VI

PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

Article 33

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of a, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

Article 34

The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 35

l. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly.

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of pacific settlement provided in the present Charter.

3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of matters brought to its attention under this Article will be subject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.

Article 36

1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment.

2. The Security Council should take into consideration any procedures for the settlement of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties.

3. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court.

Article 37

1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.

2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate.

Article 38

Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute.

CHAPTER VII

ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION

Article 39

The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 4 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Article 40

In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures.

Article 41

The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

Article 42

Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Article 43

1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces, their degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be provided.

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

Article 44

When Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces.

Article 45

In order to enable the Nations to take urgent military measures, Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined, within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Committee.

Article 46

Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 47

1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the Security Council on questions relating to the Security Council's military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.

2. The Military Staff Committee consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge of the Committee's responsibilities re- quires the participation of that Member its work.

3. The Military Staff Committee be responsible under the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed forces paced at the disposal of the Security Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out subsequently.

4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the security Council and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may establish sub-commit- tees.

Article 48

1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may determine.

2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are members.

Article 49

The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.

Article 50

If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems.

Article 51

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Chapter VIII

REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Article 52

1. Nothing in the present Charter the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate fur regional action, provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them to the Security Council.

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council.

4. This Article in no way the application of Articles 34 and 35.

Article 53

1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Organization may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a state.

2. The term enemy state as used in para- graph 1 of this Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

Article 54

The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security.

CHAPTER IX

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CO-OPERATION

Article 55

With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:

a. higher standards of living, fu employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational co- operation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

Article 56

All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 57

1. The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63.

2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized agencies.

Article 58

The Organization shall make recommendations for the co-ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies.

Article 59

The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations among the states concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 60

Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the General Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X.

CHAPTER X

THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL

Composition

Article 61

1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-four Members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen members of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be eligible for immediate re-election.

3. At the first election after the increase in the membership of the Economic and Social Council from twenty-seven to fifty-four members, in addition to the members elected in place of the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of that year, twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of these twenty-seven additional members, the term of office of nine members so elected shall expire at the end of one year, and of nine other members at the end of two years, in accordance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative.

Functions and Powers

Article 62

1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned.

2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

3. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling within its competence.

4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations, international conferences on matters falling within its competence.

Article 63

1. The Economic and Social Council may enter into agreements with any of the agencies referred to in Article 57, defining the terms on which the agency concerned shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations. Such agreements shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly.

2. It may co-ordinate the activities of the specialized agencies through consultation with and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the General Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations.

Article 64

1. The Economic and Social Council may take appropriate steps to obtain regular re- ports from the specialized agencies. may make arrangements with the Members of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies to obtain reports on the steps taken to give effect to its own recommendations and to recommendations on matters falling within its competence made by the General Assembly.

2. It may communicate its observations on these reports to the General Assembly.

Article 65

The Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and shall assist the Security Council upon its request.

Article 66

1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its competence in connexion with the carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly.

2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, perform services at the request of Members of the United Nations and at the request of specialized agencies.

3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified elsewhere in the present Charter or as may be assigned to it by the General Assembly.

Voting

Article 67

1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Procedure

Article 68

The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human rights, and such other commissions as may for the performance of its functions.

Article 69

The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to participate, without vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to that Member.

Article 70

The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of the specialized agencies to participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those of the commissions established by it, and for its representatives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.

Article 71

The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned.

Article 72

1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.

CHAPTER XI

DECLARATION REGARDING NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES

Article 73

Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter, the well- being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end:

a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;

b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;

c. to further international peace and security;

d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and to co-operate with one another and, when and where appropriate, with specialized international bodies with a view to the practical achievement of the social, economic, and scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and

e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes, subject to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may require, statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic, social, and educational conditions in the territories for which they are respectively responsible other than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply.

Article 74

Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, must be based on the general principle of good-neigh-bourliness, due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and commercial matters.

CHAPTER XII

INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM

Article 75

The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.

Article 76

The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:

a. to further international peace and security;

b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement;

c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all with- out : as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and

d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their , and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of justice, without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.

Article 77

1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:

a. territories now held under mandate;

b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War; and

c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsible for their administration.

2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought under the trustee- ship system and upon what terms.

Article 78

The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality.

Article 79

The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and 85.

Article 80

1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties.

2. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.

Article 81

The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.

Article 82

There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.

Article 83

1. All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the Security Council.

2. he basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each strategic area.

3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to political, economic, social, and educational matters in the strategic areas.

Article 84

It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.

Article 85

1. The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General Assembly.

2. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly, shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.

CHAPTER XIII

THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL

Composition

Article 86

1. The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United Nations:

a. those Members administering trust territories;

b. such of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering trust territories; and

c. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly as may be necessary to ensure that the total number of members of the Trusteeship Council is equally divided between those Members of the United Nations which ad- minister trust territories and those which do not.

2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate one specially qualified person to represent it therein.

Functions and Powers

Article 87

The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out their functions, may:

a. consider reports submitted by the ad- ministering authority;

b. accept petitions and examine them in consultation with the administering authority;

c. provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon with the administering authority; and

d. take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship agreements.

Article 88

The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such questionnaire.

Voting

Article 89

1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Procedure

Article 90

1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its members.

Article 91

The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned.

CHAPTER XIV

THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

Article 92

The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter.

Article 93

1. All Members of the United Nations are facto parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.

2. A state which is not of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Article 94

1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decision of the International Court of Justice in any case to which it is a party.

2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give to the judgment.

Article 95

Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements already in existence or which may be concluded in the future.

Article 96

1. The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question.

2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies, which may at any time be so authorized by the General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.

CHAPTER XV

THE SECRETARIAT

Article 97

The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary- General and such staff as the Organization may require. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization.

Article 98

The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization.

Article 99

The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 100

1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority externa to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action which might on their position as international officials responsible only to the Organization.

2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively inter- national character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.

Article 101

1. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General under regulations established by the General Assembly.

2. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned to the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and, as required, to other organs of the United Nations. These staffs shall form a part of the Secretariat.

3. The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.

CHAPTER XVI

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Article 102

1. Every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it.

2. No party to any such treaty or international agreement which has not been registered in accordance with the provisions of paragraph I of this Article may invoke that treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations.

Article 103

In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail.

Article 104

The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.

Article 105

1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfilment of its purposes.

2. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in connexion with the Organization.

3. The General Assembly may make recommendations with a view to determining the details of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this purpose.

CHAPTER XVII

TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS

Article 106

Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration, signed at Moscow, 30 October 1943, and France, shall, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion requires with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.

Article 107

Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action.

CHAPTER XVIII

AMENDMENTS

Article 108

Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.

Article 109

1. A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members of the Security Council. Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.

2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including the permanent members of the Security Council.

3. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council.

CHAPTER XIX

RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE

Article 110

1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

2. The shall be deposited with the Government of the Unite States of America, which shall notify a the signatory states of each deposit as well as the Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been appointed.

3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of by the Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist, the United King- dom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, and by a majority of the other signatory states. A protocol of the deposited shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the United States of America which shall communicate copies thereof to all the signa- tory states.

4. The states signatory to the present Chartar which ratify it after it has come into force will become original Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit of their respective ratifications.

Article 111

The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of -the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states.

IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations have signed the present Charter.

DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five.

 

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